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সহকারী অধ্যাপক, ইংরেজি বিভাগ, ধনবাড়ী কলেজ, টাঙ্গাইল

প্রধান পরীক্ষক: মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চ মাধ্যমিক শিক্ষা বোর্ড, ঢাকা।

Mobile: 01712967450, 01912319608

E-mail: prof.m.hkhan@gmail.com

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সুপ্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধুরা,

আন্তরিক ভালবাসা ও শুভেচ্ছা জানবে। ভাল আছ নিশ্চই। তোমাদের Vocabulary সমৃদ্ধ করার জন্য Word এর Forms & Functions আলোচনা করা হয়েছে। আজ তোমাদের জন্য সিলেবাস এবং প্রশ্ন পত্রের সাথে সংশ্লিষ্ট বিষয় Filling the gaps অর্থ্যাৎ THE RULES OF RIGHT FORM OF VERBS নিয়ে আলোচনা হচ্ছে। উল্লেখিত নিয়মাবলি আয়ত্ব করে এর সাথে Vocabulary এবং Parts of Speech (যা ইতিপূর্বে আলোচনা করা হয়েছে) এর সমন্বয়ের মাধ্যমে অনুশীলন করলে তোমাদের Filling the gaps এর প্রশ্নাবলির উত্তর করতে সহজ হবে। Grammar বা English Language সংক্রান্ত কোন প্রশ্ন থাকলে তা ০১৭১২৯৬৭৪৫০, ০১৯১২৩১৯৬০৮ নম্বরে জানাবে।

THE RULES OF RIGHT FORM OF VERBS

Rules-1 Simple Sentence এ দ্বিতীয় াবৎন অর্থ্যাৎ ইৎধপশবঃ এর াবৎন এর সাথে রহম যুক্ত হয়ে চৎবংবহঃ চধৎঃরপরঢ়ষব বা এবৎঁহফ হয় অথবা ঠবৎন এর পূর্বে ঃড় বসিয়ে ওহভরহরঃরাব চযৎধংব করতে হয়। উদ্দেশ্যমূলক অর্থ বুঝালে ব্রাকেটের এর পূর্বে ঠবৎন ঃড় বসাতে হয়। যেমন:-

i) I saw the girl (walk) alone. Ans: I saw the girl walking alone.

ii) I do not want to (leave) my room. Ans: I do not want to leave my room.

iii) The girl went to market (buy) a book. Ans: The girl went to buy a book.

iv) She left the room (close) the door. Ans: She left the room closing the door.

(‡Kvb verb Gi †k‡l Vowel ‘e’ Gi c~‡e© Consonant _vK‡j ing Kivi mgq Vowel ‘e’ ev` w`‡Z nq)

v) I saw the boys (swim). Ans: I saw the boys swimming.

(Consonant Gi c~‡e© GKwU Vowel _vK‡j ing Kivi mgq Consonant wU mvaviYZ Double n‡q hvq)

Note: GLv‡b Avgv‡`i †R‡b ivLv DwPZ Simple Sentence Kv‡K e‡j| ‡h Sentence G GKwU gvÎ Subject Ges GKwU Main Clause A_©¨vr GKwU Finitive Verb _v‡K Zv‡K Simple Sentence e‡j| Avi Finitive Verb n‡jv †h Verb tense Ges subject Gi number I person ‡f‡` cwieZ©bkxj| ‡hgb:

i) I go to college (Subject hLb First person)

ii) He goes to college. (Subject hLb 3rd person)

iii) I am going to college. (Present Continuous)

iv) He has gone to college (Present Perfect)

v) I went to college. (Past Indefinite)

Rules-2 : Universal truth (wPišÍb mZ¨), habitual fact (Af¨vmMZ Kg©) eySv‡j Present Indefinite tense nq| †hgb:

The sun (rise) in the East. Ans: The sun rises in the East.

Rules-3 : wPišÍb mZ¨, HwZnvwmK NUbv ev Af¨vmMZ †Kvb NUbv Qvov Complex ev Compound Sentence Gi GKwU Clause ‡h Tense Gi nq, Aci Clause wUI mvaviYZ †mB Tense G n‡e| ‡h Sentence Ges `ywU Verb _v‡K Ges Gi `ywU Ask and, but, or Øviv hy³ nq Zv‡K Compound Sentence e‡j| and, but, or Qvov Ab¨vb¨ Conjunction (ev Relative Pronoun) †hgb: Which, That, When, Since, If, As if BZ¨vw` Øviv mshy³ _v‡K Zv‡K Complex Sentence e‡j| †hgb:

i) I know that he (be) honest. Ans: I know that he is honest.

ii) He went to market and (buy) a book. Ans: He went to market and bought a book.

Rules-4 : To Qvov Preposition (in, on, of, with, without, BZ¨vw` ) Gi ci Verb Gi mv‡_ mvaviYZ ing ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| †hgb: He is fond of (smoke) Ans: He is fond of smoking

wKš‘ Preposition eªv‡K‡Ui Verb Gi c‡i _vK‡j Sentence wU Passive Voice Gi wbq‡g Verb Past Participle Ges Subject Gi ci Tense, Number I Person Abyhvqx mvnvh¨Kvix Verb emv‡Z n‡e| †hgb: The box (make) of wood. Ans: The box is made of wood.

Rules-5 : Verb “to be” ( hLb Passive Voice nq), Verb “to have”, having, being BZ¨vw`i eªv‡K‡Ui ci Verb Past Participle nq| †hgb: i) English is (Speak) all over the world. Ans: English is spoken all over the world. ii) Sifat has (learn) his lesson. Ans: Sifat has learnt his lesson. iii) Having (do) the work, I left the place. Ans: Having done the work, I left the place.

Rules-6 : Just, already, recently, even, yet, now BZ¨vw` _vK‡j Present Perfect Tense nq| †hgb: i) He recently (leave) the country. Ans: He has recently left the country. ii) I just (finish) my work. Ans: I have just finished my work.

Rules-7 : Can, could, may, might, should, would cÖf~wZ Modal Auxiliary Gici Verb Present iƒc nq| I can (drive) car. Ans: I can drive car. D‡jøwLZ Auxiliary Verb Gici AwZwi³ Òbe” _vK‡j ZLb eªv‡K‡Ui Verb wU Past Participle nq| †hgb: The story should be (write). Ans: The story should be written.

Rules-8 : Be + to Ges Have + to Gici Verb Present iƒc nq| †hgb: i) I am to (go) to Dhaka. Ans: I am to go to Dhaka. ii) You have to (do) the work. Ans: You have to do the work.

Rules-9 : shall/will Gici Verb Present iƒc nq| †hgb: He will (do) it according to my advice. Ans: He will do it according to my advice. wKš‘ shall+ be ev will+ be Gici Sentence wU active voice G _vK‡j Zv Future Continuous Gi MVbvbymv‡i Verb Gi mv‡_ ing ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| †hgb: I shall be (to do) the work. Ans: I shall be doing the work. Avevi Sentence wU passive voice G _vK‡j Verb wU Past Participle nq| †hgb: The book will be (write) immediately. Ans: The book will be written immediately.

Rules-10 : wbKUZg fwel¨r eySv‡Z present continuous tense e¨eüZ nq| †hgb: He (go) to buy a Television. Ans: Hi is going to buy a Television.